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Intravenous Dilution list
Selected References

1 Abramson NS, Safar P. Barbiturate coma in head injury. J Neurosurg. 1986 Oct;65(4):573-4.
2 Allen LV & Stiles ML: Compatibility of various admixtures with secondary additives at Y-injection sites of intravenous administration sets. Part 2. Am J Hosp Pharm 1981; 38:380-381.
3 American Hospital Formulary Service. Drug information Bethesda, MD: ASHP, 1997.

American Hospital Formulary Service, 1998. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 

5 Anon: Standards and guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. JAMA 1986; 255:2905-2985.
6 Anon: Nitroprusside and cyanide toxicity. WHO Drug Information 1990a; 4:176.
7 Anon: Handbook on Extemporaneous Formulations. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Bethesda, MD, 1987.
8 Anon: Chemotherapy and antibiotic fluid standardizations and fluid minimums. M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston, Pharmacy Bulletin 1986; 4.
9 Bayliff CD, Schwartz ML & Hardy BG: Pharmacokinetics of high dose pentobarbital in severe head trauma. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1985; 38:457-461.
10 Bennett WM, Aronoff GR, Golper TA et al: Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure: Dosing Guidelines for Adults, 3rd ed. American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, PA, 1994.
11 Bednarczyk EM, White WB, Munger MA et al: Comparative acute blood pressure reduction from intravenous fenoldopam mesylate versus sodium nitroprusside in severe systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1989; 63:993-996
12 Braunwald E, Maseri A, Armstrong PW et al: Rationale and clinical evidence for the use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J 1998; 19(suppl D):D22-D30.
13 Brogden, RN & Markham A: Fenoldopam. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and intravenous clinical potential in the management of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. Drugs 1997; 54(4):634-650.
14 Campbell NR, et al. Aging and heparin-related bleeding. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156:857-60.

Carter BL. LA. Therapy of acute thromboembolism with heparin and warfarin. Clin Pharm 1991; 10; 503-15. 

16 Chamorro C, de Latorre FJ, Montero A, Sanchez-Izquierdo JA, Jareno A, Moreno JA, Gonzalez E, Barrios M, Carpintero JL, Martin-Santos F, Otero B, Ginestal R. Comparative study of propofol versus midazolam in the sedation of critically ill patients: results of a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. Crit Care Med. 1996 Jun;24(6):932-9.
17 Chow MS. Intravenous amiodarone: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use. Ann Pharmacother. 1996 Jun;30(6):637-43. 
18 Campbell S, Nolan PE, Bliss M et al: Stability of amiodarone hydrochloride in admixtures with other injectable drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm 1986; 43:917-921.

Chow MS, Schweizer R, Estimation of Creatinine Clearance in Patients with Unstable Serum Creatinine Concentrations: Comparison of Multiple Methods. DICP. 1985;19:385-390.

20 Cockcroft DW, Gault MH. Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 1976; 16: 31-41. 
21 Cohn JN, Johnson G, Ziesche S et al: A comparison of enalapril with hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991; 325:303-310.
22 Colucci RD, Cobuzzi LE & Halpern NA: Visual compatibility of labetalol hydrochloride injection with various injectable drugs during simulated Y-site injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1988a; 45:1357-1358.
23 Cropp JS, Antal EG & Talbert RL: Ibutilide: a new class III antiarrhythmic agent. Pharmacotherapy 1997; 17:1-9.
24 Cumming AMM, Brown JJ, Fraser R et al: Blood pressure reduction by incremental infusion of labetalol in patients with severe hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1979a; 8:359-364.
25 Cutie MR: Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride injection with commonly used additives. Am J Hosp Pharm 1983; 40:1205-1207.
26 Danziger LH, Creger RJ, Shwed JA et al: Randomized trial of imipenem-cilastatin versus gentamicin plus clindamycin in the treatment of polymicrobial infections. Pharmacotherapy 1988; 8:315-318.
27 Das Gupta V & Stewart KR: Stability of haloperidol in 5% dextrose injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1982; 39:292-294.
28 Das Gupta V, Pramar Y & Bethea C: Stability of acyclovir sodium in dextrose and sodium chloride injections. J Clin Pharm Ther 1989; 14:451-456.
29 Das Gupta V, Parasrampuria J, Bethea C et al: Stability of clindamycin phosphate in dextrose and saline solutions. Can J Hosp Pharm 1989; 42:109-112.
30 Das Gupta V & Stewart KR: Stability of cefuroxime sodium in some aqueous buffered solutions and intravenous admixtures. J Clin Hosp Pharm 1986; 11:47-54.
31 Das Gupta V, Maswoswe J & Bailey RE: Stability of cefepime hydrochloride dextrose in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Int J Pharmaceutical Compounding 1997; 1(6):435-436.
32 Das Gupta V: Stability of cefotaxime sodium as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Sci 1984; 73:565-567
33 Das Gupta V, Pramar Y, Odom C et al: Chemical stability of cefotetan disodium in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections. J Clin Pharm Ther 1990; 15:109-114.
34 Dalton-Bunnow MF & Halvachs FJ: Update on room-temperature stability of drug products labeled for refrigerated storage. Am J Hosp Pharm 1990; 47:2522-2524.
35 Dixon FW & Weshalek J: Physical compatibility of nine drugs in various intravenous solutions. Am J Hosp Pharm 1972; 29:822-823.
36 Drug Information Handbook, 5th Ed. 1997, Lexi-Comp Inc.
37 Drummond JC, Todd MM, Schubert A, Sang H. Effect of the acute administration of high dose pentobarbital on human brain stem auditory and median nerve somatosensory evoked responses. Neurosurgery. 1987 Jun;20(6):830-5.
38 Dudley DL, Rowlett DB & Loebel PJ: Emergency use of intravenous haloperidol. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1979; 1:240-246
39 Edmond MB, Wenzel RP & Pasculle AW: Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: perspectives on measures needed for control. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124:329-334. Eskridge RA: The management of septic shock. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1983; 17:92-99.
40 Eisenberg HM, Frankowski RF, Contant CF, Marshall LF, Walker MD. High-dose barbiturate control of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with severe head injury. J Neurosurg. 1988 Jul;69(1):15-23.
41 Epstein M, Lepp BA, Hoffman DS et al: Potentiation of furosemide by metolazone in refractory edema. Curr Ther Res 1977; 21:656-667.
42 Ernst ME, Ernst EJ & Klepser ME: Levofloxacin and trovafloxacin: The next generation of fluoroquinolones. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1997; 54:2569-2584.

Estes, JW. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Heparin. Clin Pharm 1980 5:204-220. 

44 Feldman SA, Wu X & England AJ: Rate of onset and offset of four non depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Anaesthesia 1995; 50:510-513.
45 Fischer JH, Cwik MJ, Luer MS et al: Stability of fosphenytoin sodium with intravenous solutions in glass bottles, polyvinyl chloride bags, and polypropylene syringes. Ann Pharmacother 1997; 31:553-559.
46 Fong PA & Ward J: Visual compatibility of intravenous famotidine with selected drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm 1989; 46:125-126.
47 Forman JK, Lachs JR & Souney PF: Visual compatibility of acyclovir sodium with commonly used intravenous drugs during simulated Y-site injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1987; 44:1408-1409.
48 Fong PA & Ward J: Visual compatibility of intravenous famotidine with selected drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm 1989; 46:125-126.
49 Foster RH, Wilde MI & Markham A: Ibutilide: a review of its pharmacological properties and clinical potential in the acute management of atrial flutter and fibrillation. Drugs 1997; 54:312-330.
50 Ganes T, Lundar T. The effect of thiopentone on somatosensory evoked responses and EEGs in comatose patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1983 Jun;46(6):509-14.
51 Greinacher A, Volpel H, Janssens U et al: Recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) provides safe and effective anticoagulation in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. A prospective study. Circulation 1999; 99:73-80.
52 Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS et al (Eds): Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed. Macmillan Publishing Co, New York, NY, 1990.
53 Gubbins PO & Record KE: Establishing guidelines for minimum intravenous admixture volumes based on osmolality for commonly administered antimicrobial agents (abstract 2702008). IPA 1990; 27:322.
54 Guimond JG, Matuschak GM, Meyers F et al: Augmentation of cardiac function in end-stage heart failure by combined use of dobutamine and amrinone. Chest 1986; 90:302-304.
55 Gerlag PGG & van Meijel JJM: High-dose furosemide in the treatment of refractory congestive heart failure. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148:286-291.
56 Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, Valdes L, Amaro A et al: Treatment of massive pulmonary thromboembolism with low intrapulmonary dosages of urokinase. Chest 1992; 102:341-346.
57 Hassan E, Leslie J & Martir-Herrero ML: Stability of labetalol hydrochloride with selected critical care drugs during simulated Y-site injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1994; 51:2143-2145.
58 Halpern NA, Colucci RD, Alicea M et al: The compatibility of nicardipine hydrochloride injection with various ICU medications during simulated Y-site injection. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1989; 27:250-254
59 Haddad LM. Resuscitation after nifedipine overdose exclusively with intravenous calcium chloride. Am J Emerg Med. 1996 Oct;14(6):602-3
60 Hamill RJ, Robinson LM, Wexler HR et al: Efficacy and safety of potassium infusion therapy in hypokalemic critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1991; 19:694-699

Hattersley PG, et al. Adjusting heparin infusion rates from the initial response to activated coagulation time. DICP 1983;17:632-634. 

62 Hittel WP, Iafrate RP, Karnes HT et al: Stability of pentobarbital sodium in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1983; 40:294-296
63 Heinemeyer G, Roots I & Rudiger D: Monitoring of pentobarbital plasma levels in critical care patients suffering from increased intracranial pressure. Ther Drug Monit 1986; 8:145-150.
64 Hoffken G, Lode H, Prinzing C et al: Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin after oral and parenteral administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1985; 27:375-379.
65 Hyneck ML, et al. Comparison of methods for estimating digoxin dosing regimens. AJHP 1981;38:69-73.

Hull JH, et al. Influence of range of renal function and liver disease on predictability of creatinine clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1981;30:414-21. 

67 Inagaki K, Takagi J, Lor E et al: Stability of fluconazole in commonly used intravenous antibiotic solutions. Am J Hosp Pharm 1993; 50:1206-1208
68 I.V. Drug Handbook, 4th Ed. 1992, Springhouse corporation.
69 James MJ & Riley CM: Stability of intravenous admixtures of aztreonam and clindamycin phosphate. Am J Hosp Pharm 1985a; 42:1984-1986

Jusko WJ, et al. Pharmacokinetic design of digoxin dosage regimens in relation to renal function. J Clin Pharmacol 1974;14:525-35. 

71 King JC. Guide to Parenteral Admixtures. St. Louis: Kabi Vitrum, 1988.

Kershaw B, et al. Computer-assisted dosing of heparin: management with a pharmacy-based anticoagulation service. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:10005-1011. 

73 Kirschenbaum BE. Latiolais CJ. Injectable Medications: A Guide to Stability and Reconstitution. New York: McMahon Group; 1991.
74 Kobrinsky NL, Gerrard JM, Watson CM et al: Shortening of bleeding time by 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin in various bleeding disorders. Lancet 1984a; 1:1145-1148.
75 Koda-Kimble MA & Young LL (eds): Applied Therapeutics: the Clinical Use of Drugs, 5th ed, Applied Therapeutics, Inc., Vancouver, WA, 1992.
76 Kiel D, Connolly BJ & Souney PF: Visual compatibility of amrinone lactate with various IV secondary additives. Parenterals 1985; 3:1, 5-6.
77 Kingston ME, Al-Siba'i MB, Skooge WC. Clinical manifestations of hypomagnesemia. Crit Care Med. 1986 Nov;14(11):950-4.
78 Kitamura S, Sugiyama Y, Izumi T et al: Intrapleural doxycycline for control of malignant pleural effusion. Curr Ther Res 1981b; 30:515-521.
79 Kitamura S, Sugiyama Y, Izumi T et al: Intrapleural doxycycline for control of malignant pleural effusion. Curr Ther Res 1981b; 30:515-521.
80 Lacroix G, Lessard MR & Trepanier CA: Treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting: comparison of propofol, droperidol and metoclopramide. Can J Anaesth 1996; 43:115-120.
81 Lam YWF, Banerji S, et al. Principles of drug administration in renal insufficiency. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997; 32(1): 30-57. 
82 Leppik IE. Status epilepticus. Neurol Clin. 1986 Aug;4(3):633-43.
83 Lincoff AM, Califf RM, Moliterno DJ et al: Complementary clinical benefits of coronary-artery stenting and blockade of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors. N Engl J Med 1999; 341(5):319-327. Lineaweaver WC, Anderson K & Hing DN: Massive doses of midazolam infusion for delirium tremens without respiratory depression. Crit Care Med 1988; 16:294-295.

Livornese LL, et al. Antibacterial agents in renal failure. Infect Dis Clin of North America 1995: 9(3): 591-614.

85 Lor E & Takagi J: Visual compatibility of foscarnet with other injectable drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm 1990; 47:157-159.
86 Lor E, Sheybani T & Takagi J: Visual compatibility of fluconazole with commonly used injectable drugs during simulated Y-site administration. Am J Hosp Pharm 1991; 48:744-746.
87 Lloyd-Mostyn RH & Lord IJ: Ototoxicity of intravenous furosemide. Lancet 1971; 2(7734):1156.
88 Lowenstein DH & Alldredge BK: Status epilepticus. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:970-976.
89 Martin C, Viviand X, Arnaud S et al: Effects of norepinephrine plus dobutamine or norepinephrine alone on left ventricular performance of septic shock patients. Crit Care Med 1999; 27:1708-1713.

Mayersohn M. Special Pharmacokinetic Considerations in the Elderly. In: Applied Pharmacokinetics, 2nd Edition. Spokane, WA: Applied Therapeutics, Inc., 1986. pp 229-293. 

91 Mendel S. Continuous infusion of thiopental sodium for barbiturate-induced coma. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1981 Oct;38(10):1441-2. 
92 Meneveau N, Schiele F, Metz D et al: Comparative efficacy of a two-hour regimen of streptokinase versus alteplase in acute massive pulmonary embolism: Immediate clinical and hemodynamic outcome and one-year follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 31(5):1057-1063.

Melamed AJ, Vanamee P. Estimating creatinine clearance in patients with cancer. Hosp Pharm 1988;23:898-901. 

94 Mayron D & Gennaro AR: Stability and compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride in iv solutions and oral liquids and during simulated Y-site injection with selected drugs. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1996; 53:294-304.
95 McGuire TR, Narducci WA & Fox JL: Compatibility and stability of ondansetron hydrochloride, dexamethasone, and lorazepam in injectable solutions. Am J Hosp Pharm 1993; 50:1410-1414.
96 Miller DR, Martineau RJ, Hull KA, Vallee F, LeBel M. Optimizing sedation following major vascular surgery: a double-blind study of midazolam administered by continuous infusion. Can J Anaesth. 1994 Sep;41(9):782-93.
97 Mirski MA, Williams MA, Hanley DF. Prolonged pentobarbital and phenobarbital coma for refractory generalized status epilepticus. Crit Care Med. 1995 Feb;23(2):400-4. 
98 Nasir N Jr, Swarna US, Boahene KA, Doyle TK, Pacifico A. Therapy of Sustained Ventricular Arrhythmias With Amiodarone: Prediction of Efficacy With Serial Electrophysiologic Studies. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Apr;1(2):123-132.
99 Nunning BC & Granatek AP: Physical compatibility and chemical stability of amikacin sulfate in combination with non-antibiotic drugs in large-volume parenteral solutions - part IV. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1976b; 20:417-491.
100 Nunning BC & Granatek AP: Physical compatibility and chemical stability of amikacin sulfate in large-volume parenteral solutions - part II. Curr Ther Res 1976; 20:352-358
101 Package Inserts.
102 Package insert: Cerebyx(R), fosphenytoin sodium injection. Parke-Davis, Division of Warner-Lambert, Morris Plains, NJ, 1999.
103 Perreault MM, Ostrop NJ, Tierney MG. Efficacy and safety of intravenous phosphate replacement in critically ill patients. Ann Pharmacother. 1997 Jun;31(6):683-8.
104 Perentesis GP, Plitz GW, Kirschenbaum HL et al: Stability and visual compatibility of bretylium tosylate with selected large-volume parenterals and additives. Am J Hosp Pharm 1983; 40:1010-1012.
105 Pohlman AS, Simpson KP, Hall JB. Continuous intravenous infusions of lorazepam versus midazolam for sedation during mechanical ventilatory support: a prospective, randomized study. Crit Care Med. 1994 Aug;22(8):1241-7.
106 Post JB & Frishman WH: Fenoldopam: a new dopamine agonist for the treatment of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 38:2-13.
107 Pugh CB, Pabis DJ & Rodriguez C: Visual compatibility of morphine sulfate and meperidine hydrochloride with other injectable drugs during simulated Y-site injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1991; 48:123-125.

Raschke RA, et al. The weight-based heparin nomogram compared with a standard care nomogram: a randomized controlled trial Ann Intern Med 1993; 119:874-81 

109 Riker RR, Fraser GL, Cox PM. Continuous infusion of haloperidol controls agitation in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1994 Mar;22(3):433-40.
110 Rhodes PJ, et al: Evaluation of Eight Methods for Estimating Creatinine Clearance in Men. Clin Pharm. 1987;6:399-406. 
111 Rice TL: Treatment of esophageal varices. Clin Pharm 1989; 8:122-131.

Rivey MP, Peterson JP. Pharmacy-managed, weight-based heparin protocol. AJHP 1993; 50:pp 279-84. 

113 Riley CM: Stability of milrinone and digoxin, furosemide, procainamide hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, quinidine gluconate, or verapamil hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1988; 45:2079-2091.
114 Robin ED & McCauley R: Nitroprusside-related cyanide poisoning. Chest 1992; 102:1842-1845.
115 Sandiumenge Camps A, Sanchez-Izquierdo Riera JA, Toral Vazquez D, Sa Borges M, Peinado Rodriguez J, Alted Lopez E. Midazolam and 2% propofol in long-term sedation of traumatized critically ill patients: efficacy and safety comparison. Crit Care Med. 2000 Nov;28(11):3612-9.
116 Saya Frank, et al. Pharmacist-directed heparin therapy using a standard dosing and monitoring protocol. Am J Hosp Pharm 1985; 42:1965-1969.

Schlicht JR, et al. Reevaluation of a weight-based heparin dosing nomogram: is institution specific modification necessary? Ann Pharmacother 1997; 31:1454-9. 

118 Sawyer WT, et al, Variables Affecting Creatinine Clearance Prediction. Am J Hosp Pharm 1983;40:2175-80.
119 Schreck DM, Rivera AR & Tricarico VJ: Emergency management of atrial fibrillation and flutter: intravenous diltiazem versus intravenous digoxin. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 29:135-140.
120 Seneff MG, Mathews RA. Use of haloperidol infusions to control delirium in critically ill adults. Ann Pharmacother. 1995 Jul-Aug;29(7-8):690-3.
121 St. Peter WL, Redic-Kill KA, Halstenson CE. Clinical pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in patients with impaired renal function. Clin Pharmacokinet 1992; 22(3): 169-210. 
122 Stine RJ, Marcus RH, Parvin CA.  Aminophylline loading in asthmatic patients: a protocol trial. Ann Emerg Med. 1989 Jun;18(6):640-6.
123 Stump DL & Hardin TC: The use of vasopressin in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Drugs 1990; 39:38-53.
124 Sutters M, Gaboury CL, Bennett WM. Severe hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia: a dilemma in patient management. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1996 Oct;7(10):2056-61
125 Swart EL, van Schijndel RJ, van Loenen AC, Thijs LG. Continuous infusion of lorazepam versus medazolam in patients in the intensive care unit: sedation with lorazepam is easier to manage and is more cost-effective. Crit Care Med. 1999 Aug;27(8):1461-5.
126 Tanswell P, Tebbe U, Neuhaus KL, Glasle-Schwarz L, Wojcik J, Seifried E. Pharmacokinetics and fibrin specificity of alteplase during accelerated infusions in acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992 Apr;19(5):1071-5.
127 Trissel LA & Martinez JF: Compatibility of piperacillin sodium plus tazobactam with selected drugs during simulated Y-site injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1994; 51:672-678.
128 Trissel LA, Martinez JF, Gilbert DL Jr. Compatibility of cisatracurium besylate with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1997 Aug 1;54(15):1735-41.
129 Trissel LA, Gilbert DL, Martinez JF. Compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration.   Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1997 Jan 1;54(1):56-60.
130 Trissel LA, Martinez JF. Compatibility of filgrastim with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1994 Aug 1;51(15):1907-13. 
131 Trissel LA, Pearson SD. Storage of lorazepam in three injectable solutions in polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin bags. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1994 Feb 1;51(3):368-72.
132 Trissel LA. Handbook on Injectable Drugs. 10th Ed. Bethesda, MD: ASHP, 1996.
133 Vinson DR, Burke TF, Sung HM. Rapid reversal of life-threatening diltiazem-induced tetany with calcium chloride. Ann Emerg Med. 1999 Nov;34(5):676-8.
134 Vincent JL, Bredas P, Jankowski S, Kahn RJ. Correction of hypocalcaemia in the critically ill: what is the haemodynamic benefit? Intensive Care Med. 1995 Oct;21(10):838-41.
135 Viray R, Turlapaty P & Laddu A: Esmolol: a short-acting titratable beta-blocker in acute myocardial ischemia. Intern J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1988; 26:153-161.
136 Voelker JR, Brown-Cartwright D, Anderson S et al: Comparison of loop diuretics in patients with chronic renal insufficiency: mechanism of difference in response. Kidney Int 1987; 32:572-578

Walsh FM, Sode J. Significance of non-steady-state serum digoxin concentrations. Am J Clin Pathol 1975;63:446-50. 

138 Weir SJ, Myers VAS, Bengtson KD et al: Sorption of amiodarone to polyvinyl chloride infusion bags and administration sets. Am J Hosp Pharm 1985; 42:2679-2683
139 Wiest DB, Garner SS & Childress LM: Stability of esmolol hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1995; 52:716-718.

Winter ME. Basic Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 3rd ed. Applied Therapeutics, Inc., Vancouver WA. 1994. 

141 Wormann B, Kurtz K & Ottenhann R: Treatment of relapsing bleeding peptic ulcers with the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in a patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Hepato-gastroenterol 1985; 32:152-153.
142 Woster PS, LeBlanc KL. Management of elevated intracranial pressure. Clin Pharm. 1990 Oct;9(10):762-72.
143 Yuen PM. A prospective cohort study of oxytocin plus ergometrine compared with oxytocin alone for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1997 May;104(5):643-4. 
144 Zhang YP & Trissel LA: Stability of aminocaproic acid injection admixtures in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Int J Pharm Compound 1997; 1(2):132-133.
145 Zhang Y, Trissel LA, Martinez JF, Gilbert DL.  Stability of acyclovir sodium 1, 7, and 10 mg/mL in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1998 Mar 15;55(6):574-7.



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