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Institute of Medicine Equation - Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

Metabolic Equivalents - METS

Background

Definitions

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in healthy, normal weight individuals of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent with good health. In children and pregnant and lactating women, the EER includes the needs associated with growth or secretion of milk at rates consistent with good health.

PAL is the physical activity level that is the ratio of the total energy expenditure to the
basal energy expenditure.

METs are multiples of an individual’s resting oxygen uptakes, defined as the rate of
oxygen (O2) consumption of 3.5 mL of O2/min/kg body weight in adults.

Metabolic Equivalents (METs):
"The impact of various physical activities is often described and compared in terms of METs (i.e., multiples of an individual’s resting oxygen uptake), and one MET is defined as a rate of oxygen (O2) consumption of 3.5 ml/kg/min in adults. Taking the oxygen energy equivalent of 5 kcal/L consumed, this corresponds to 0.0175 kcal/minute/kg (3.5 mL/min/kg x 0.005 kcal/mL). A rate of energy expenditure of 1.0 MET thus corresponds to 1.2 kcal/min in a man weighing 70 kg (0.0175 kcal/kg/minute x 70 kg) and to 1.0 kcal/minute in a woman weighing 57 kg (0.0175 kcal/kg/min x 57 kg)."  

Source
: Dietary Reference Intakes For Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids,Cholesterol, Protein,and Amino Acids, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2002 and 2005, THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001.    Link: www.nap.edu

Age group - physical activity (PA) values based on level of daily activity:

The Physical Activity Coefficients below are used with the EER equations to calculate the amount of calories needed each day.
Boys aged 3-18:
Sedentary: 1.0
Low Active: 1.13
Active: 1.26
Very Active: 1.42
Obese boys 3-18y
Sedentary: 1.0
Low Active: 1.12
Active: 1.24
Very Active: 1.45
Girls aged 3-18 y
Sedentary: 1.0
Low Active: 1.16
Active: 1.31
Very Active: 1.56
Obese girls 3-18y
Sedentary: 1.0
Low Active: 1.18
Active: 1.35
Very Active: 1.6
Adult men >19 years
Sedentary: 1.0
Low Active: 1.11
Active: 1.25
Very Active: 1.48
Adult women >19 years
Sedentary: 1.0
Low Active: 1.12
Active: 1.27
Very Active: 1.45

How to use the table below:
Example activity: Walking (4 mph):
Using the table below:   METs = 4.5.   Weight of individual: 80 kg.
Amount of energy expended = 0.0175 kcal/kg/minute x 80 kg x 4.5 = 6.3 kcal/min.  Therefore walking for 30 minutes at 4 mph for an 80 kg individual would consume 189 kcal.


Impact and intensity of multiple activities on
PAL (physical activity level)

Source:  Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA, et al. Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001; 104: 1694-1740.    Full Text
Activity  Metabolic Equivalents (METs)  Change PAL/10 min Change PAL/hour 

Mild 

Billiards  2.4 0.013 0.08
Canoeing (leisurely)  2.5 0.014 0.09
Dancing (ballroom)  2.9 0.018 0.11
Golf (with cart)  2.5 0.014 0.09
Horseback riding (walking)  2.3 0.012 0.07
Playing       
Accordion  1.8 0.008 0.05
Cello  2.3 0.012 0.07
Flute  2 0.01 0.06
Piano  2.3 0.012 0.07
Violin  2.5 0.014 0.09
Volleyball (noncompetitive)  2.9 0.018 0.11
Walking (2 mph)  2.5 0.014 0.09

Moderate 

Activity  Metabolic Equivalents (METs)  Change PAL/10 min Change PAL/hour 
Calisthenics (no weight)  4 0.029 0.17
Cycling (leisurely)  3.5 0.024 0.14
Golf (without cart)  4.4 0.032 0.19
Swimming (slow)  4.5 0.033 0.2
Walking (3 mph)  3.3 0.022 0.13
Walking (4 mph)  4.5 0.033 0.2

Vigorous 

Activity  Metabolic Equivalents (METs)  Change PAL/10 min Change PAL/hour 
Chopping wood  4.9 0.037 0.22
Climbing hills (no load)  6.9 0.056 0.34
Climbing hills (5-kg load)  7.4 0.061 0.37
Cycling (moderately)  5.7 0.045 0.27
       
Dancing       
Aerobic or ballet  6 0.048 0.29
Ballroom (fast) or square  5.5 0.043 0.26
       
Jogging (10-min miles)  10.2 0.088 0.53
Rope skipping  12 0.105 0.63
       
Skating       
Ice  5.5 0.043 0.26
Roller  6.5 0.052 0.31
       
Skiing (water or downhill)  6.8 0.055 0.33
Squash  12.1 0.106 0.63
Surfing  6 0.048 0.29
Swimming  7 0.057 0.34
Tennis (doubles)  5 0.038 0.23
Walking (5 mph)  8 0.067 0.4
Activities of daily living 
Activity  Metabolic Equivalents (METs)  Change PAL/10 min Change PAL/hour 
Gardening (no lifting)  4.4 0.032 0.19
Household tasks, moderate effort  3.5 0.024 0.14
Lifting items continuously  4 0.029 0.17
Light activity while sitting  1.5 0.005 0.03
Loading/unloading car  3 0.019 0.11
Lying quietly  1 0 0
Mopping  3.5 0.024 0.14
Mowing lawn (power mower) 4.5 0.033 0.2
Raking lawn  4 0.029 0.17
Riding in a vehicle  1 0 0
Sitting  0 0 0
Taking out trash  3 0.019 0.11
Vacuuming  3.5 0.024 0.14
Walking the dog  3 0.019 0.11
Walking from house to car or bus  2.5 0.014 0.09
Watering plants  2.5 0.014 0.09



Disclaimer

All calculations must be confirmed before use. The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this program shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material. PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.   Read the disclaimer
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