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Gram Positive Bacteria
3] Staph lugdunensis
6] Staph capitis
Coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive, spherical cells in clusters.
It is one of only two species of Staphylococcus that display sensitivity to desferrioxamine, the other being S. epidermidis. Unlike S. epidermidis, S. hominis produces acid from trehalose, so the two tests together serve to identify the species.
It occurs very commonly as a harmless commensal on human and animal skin. However, like many other coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. hominis may occasionally cause infection in patients whose immune systems are compromised.
: The choice of an agent should be based on local antimicrobial sensitivities, site of infection, cost, and comorbid conditions. Generally, the most common agents/regimens are listed first. Listed dosages may need to be adjusted for renal dysfunction.
for treatment options
Infectious Disease Section References
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Arnold FW, LaJoie AS, Brock GN, Peyrani P, Rello J, Menéndez R, et al. Improving outcomes in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia by adhering to national guidelines: Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization International cohort study results. Arch Intern Med. Sep 14 2009;169(16):1515-24.
Baden LR, Eisenstein BI.Impact of Antibiotic Resistance on the Treatment of Gram-negative Sepsis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2000 Oct;2(5):409-416.
Bartlett JG et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in adults: guidelines for management. Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:811-38.
Bartlett JG: Empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia: macrolides are not ideal choices. Semin Respir Infect 1997 Dec; 12(4): 329-33
Bartlett JG.1998 Pocket Book of Infectious Disease Therapy., Ninth Edition. Baltimore,MD: Williams&Wikins,1998.
Bernstein JM: Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia--IDSA guidelines. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Chest 1999 Mar; 115(3 Suppl): 9S-13S
Brown SM, Jones BE, Jephson AR, Dean NC. Validation of the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society 2007 guidelines for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Crit Care Med. Dec 2009;37(12):3010-6.
CDC. Update to CDC's sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006. fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Apr 13 2007;56(14):332-6.
CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines.
Cunha BA. Antibiotic Essentials 8th.ed. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.
Ewig S et al. Pneumonia acquired in the community through drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159:1835-42.
Fang WF, Yang KY, Wu CL, Yu CJ, Chen CW, Tu CY, et al. Application and comparison of scoring indices to predict outcomes in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia. Crit Care. Jan 19 2011;15(1):R32.
File TM Jr. Community-acquired pneumonia: recent guidelines for therapy. J Respir Dis. 1999;20:534-41.
Gilbert DN, Moellering Jr RC, Eliopoulos GM, et al ed. The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy, 40th ed. Sperryville, VA: Antimicrobial Therapy; 2010.
Gold HS, Moellering RC. Antimicrobial-drug resistance. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1445-1453.
Gonzales R, Sande M: What will it take to stop physicians from prescribing antibiotics in acute bronchitis? Lancet 1995 Mar 18; 345(8951): 665-6
Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997;11:551-581.
Lacy CF, Armstrong LL, Goldman MP, Lance LL. Drug Information Handbook. 20th ed. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp, Inc; 2011.
Lipsky BA, Berendt AR.Principles and practice of antibiotic therapy of diabetic foot infections. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2000 Sep-Oct;16 Suppl 1:S42-6.
Mandell LA , Wunderink RG , Anzueto A , et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults . Clin Infect Dis . 2007;44(suppl 2):S27–S72.
Mufson MA.Pneumococcal Pneumonia. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 1999 Apr;1(1):57-64.
Nabel EG, Federman DD. Infectious Diseases: The Clinician's Guide to Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. Jackson, WY: Teton Data Systems, 2010.
Phua J, See KC, Chan YH, Widjaja LS, Aung NW, Ngerng WJ, et al. Validation and clinical implications of the IDSA/ATS minor criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Thorax. Jul 2009;64(7):598-603.
Pirracchio R, Mateo J, Raskine L, Rigon MR, Lukaszewicz AC, Mebazaa A, et al. Can bacteriological upper airway samples obtained at intensive care unit admission guide empiric antibiotherapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia?. Crit Care Med. Sep 2009;37(9):2559-63.
Reese RE, Betts RF: A Practical Approach to Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company; 1996: 251
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Rybak MJ, Lomaestro BM, Rotschafer JC, et al: Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin in adults: summary of consensus recommendations from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Pharmacotherapy 2009; 29:1275-1279.
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Stamm WE, Hooton TM. Management of urinary tract infections in adults. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1328-1334.
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van der Poll T, Opal SM. Pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia. Lancet. Oct 31 2009;374(9700):1543-56.
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Workowski KA, Berman S. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. Dec 17 2010;59:1-110.
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